Y-STR Haplotypes and Predicted Haplogroups in the Slovak Hoban Population

 

Eva Petrejčíkováa, Daniela Sivákováb, Miroslav Soták, Jarmila Bernasovská, Ivan Bernasovský, Adriana Sovičováa, Iveta Boroňováa, Alexandra Bôžikováa, Dana Gabrikováa, Petra Švíčkováa, Soňa Mačekováa, Jana Čarnogurskáa

 

Abstract

 

The Habans are a group of Hutterites, who converted to Catholicism and retained a separate ethnic identity in Western Slovakia.  In the present day we can find several Haban communities who have maintained their cultural identity as descendents of the Hutterite population.  Twelve Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms included in the Powerplex® Y multiplex kit were analyzed in 39 unrelated males.  The prediction of Y-haplogroups from Y-STR data was performed by the Athey Haplogroup Predictor program.  The most frequent haplogroups were E1b1b (43.57%) and R1b (30.77%).  Results indicate that the gene pool of descendents of Habans was different from the gene pool of the Slovak majority population, and that Habans have remained isolated from the surrounding populations.

 

 

a Department of Biology, University of Prešov, Slovakia

b Department of Anthropology, Comenius Univ., Bratislava, Slovakia

 

Address for correspondence:  Eva Petrejčíková,  petrejci@unipo.sk

 

Received:  July 13, 2009; accepted September 17, 2009

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The forerunners of the Hutterites were Anabaptist refugees from Switzerland, Tyrol (Northern Italy and Southern Austria), Bavaria, Hesse and Württemberg, who settled in Moravia in Central Europe (today in the Czech Republic).  Moravia was to become the country of Hutterite origin.  They were named after Jacob Hutter, who was a Tyrolean and Moravian Anabaptist leader (Hostetler, 1997).  A basic tenet of Hutterian society has always been absolute pacifism, forbidding its members from taking part in military activities, taking orders, wearing a formal uniform (such as a soldier's or a police officer's) or contributing war taxes.  This has led to expulsion or persecution of the Anabaptists in the several lands, such as Moravia, in which they have lived.

 

At the beginning of the 16th century some Hutterites migrated to Slovakia (then in the Kingdom of Hungary) for the first time (Kalesný, 1981), where they were welcomed by Hungarian lords in defiance of the emperor in Vienna (Hostetler, 1997).  The western Slovakia had stayed unoccupied by Turks and enjoyed a relative freedom (Kalesný, 1981).  Their first village was Sobotište, where they established their first settlement.  Between the years 1546 and 1620, the Hutterites built twenty-three farming communities (Hofs) where they practiced their own religion with political and economic autonomy.  It is believed that their total population reached 25,000, who created more than sixty Hofs in Slovakia and Moravia.  The number of inhabitants was about five hundred in each Hof.

 

In the late 1800’s, during the subsequent re-Catholicization of the Slovak population, many Hutterites moved to Transylvania (Romania), Ukraine, Russia, and to the Molotschna district north of the Black Sea (Kalesný, 1981).  Migrations of the Hutterites in Europe are shown in Figure 1.  The majority of Hutterian Brethren migrated to North America in 1873, where in the United States they chose the prairie land of South Dakota for settlement, while others chose Canada (Hostetler, 1997).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 1.  Hutterite migration in Europe in the 16th – 17th centuries.

 

 

According to the Hutterite Chronicles the exact number of Hutterites was 757 who stayed in Slovakia in four regions (Sobotište, Veľké Leváre, Moravský Svätý Ján, Trenčín).  They converted to Catholicism, but  retained a separate ethnic identity as Habans until the 19th century (Weisensee and Siváková, 2003).  Today in western Slovakia there are several small communities that still identify themselves as the descendents of the Hutterite population.  The exact number of Slovak Habans has not been officially counted; for comparison, the number of American Hutterites is about 45,000.  They live scattered throughout the North American prairies in approximately 460 colonies (Hutterites, 2009).

 

In this study we estimated the frequency of the major Y-chromosome haplogroups from Y-STR data by use of the web-accessible program, Whit Athey`s Haplogroup Predictor.  By analysis of the genetic structure of the Y-chromosome, the paternal ancestry of the Haban population and its genetic history can be revealed.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Blood samples were collected from healthy and unrelated Slovak Haban males from three villages in northwestern Slovakia: Sobotište (19 samples), Veľké Leváre (11 samples) and Moravský Svätý Ján (9 samples).  Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.  Genomic DNA was extracted from blood by using the Jet Quick DNA tissue kit (Genomed GmbH, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.  Male samples were chosen from individuals of Haban ancestry according to chronicles which are recognized sources describing the structure of the Haban community.

 

The amplification was performed on the Biometra1 T-Personal 48 thermal cycles using the Powerplex Y System Kit (Promega).  Amplified products were detected in a process of capillary electrophoresis using the MegaBACE1 1000 genetic analyzer (GE Healthcare).  Alleles were named according to the recommendations of the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (Bär et al., 1997).

 

Pairwise distance based on Φst values and the statistical significance (10,000 permutations) was calculated using Arlequin version 3.1 software (Excoffier et al., 2006).  The distances were visualized in two-dimensional space using the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis included in the SPSS 15.0 software.  Prediction of Y-chromosome haplogroups from Y-STR values was performed using Whit Athey`s Haplogroup Predictor, version 5 (see Web Resources).  The predictor determines the probability that a Y-STR haplotype belongs to a given haplogroup (Athey, 2006).  We chose a version of the program capable of predicting 21 Y-haplogroups (E1b1a, E1b1b, G2a, G2c, H, I1, I2a*, I2a1, I2b*, I2b1, J1, J2a1b, J2a1h, J2a1(×J2a1b,J2a1h), J2b, L, N, Q, R1a, R1b, T).

 

Results and Discussion

 

Our analysis of twelve Y-chromosome STRs of 39 samples showed 18 different Y-STR haplotypes in the Slovak Haban descendants.  Eleven haplotypes were observed only once.  The most frequent haplotype, 13-16/17-13-30-24-10-11-13-14-10-12 (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439) was present in eight cases.

 

The Hutterite Y-STR data were compared with data previously published for Switzerland (Haas et al., 2006), Tyrol (Austria) (Berger et al., 2005), Slovak population (Rebala et al., 2007), Southern Moravia (Czech Republic), Hungary, Transylvania (Romania), Moldavia, and Ukraine (YHRD, 2009) for nine Y-STRs (DYS391, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393, DYS390, DYS385).  We chose the populations from areas through which the Haban population migrated.  The pairwise analysis based on Φst values is shown in Table 1. 

 

 

TABLE 1

Pairwise Distance Based on Φst Values Between the Slovak Haban Population and Eight Countries Through Which They Migrated.

 

Country

Φst value

p value

Switzerland

0.0440

0.0499

Tyrol (Austria)

0.0200

0.1435

South Moravia (Czech republic)

0.0132

0.1976

Bratislava, Slovak majority population

0.0634

0.0211

Hungary

0.0446

0.0435

Transylvania (Romania)

0.0282

0.2085

Moldavia

0.0797

0.0353

Kiev, Ukraine

0.0797

0.0075

 

The smallest genetic distances Φst between the Haban population and the other populations were found with South Moravia (Czech Republic) (Φst =0.0134).  The largest pairwise difference for the Slovak Haban population was seen with the population sample from Ukraine (Φst = 0.0832) and that from Moldavia (0.0797), followed by the Slovak population (0.0634).  The MDS plot of these differences is depicted in Figure 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 2.  MDS plot based on Φst values depicting the relationships among the nine populations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The most frequent haplotypes were found in all three regions that were sampled.  This means that although Haban communities were isolated from the surrounding majority population, the genetic structure is not different between the Haban groups.  Table 2 shows the Y-STR haplotypes which were observed in the Haban population in three Slovak regions.

 

 

 

Table 2

Y-STR Haplotypes and Predicted Y-Haplogroups in the Slovak Haban Population

Y-Haplotype

DYS391

DYS389I

DYS439

DYS389II

DYS438

DYS437

DYS19

DYS392

DYS393

DYS390

DYS385

a/b

n

Predicted

Y-Haplogroup

Probability

(%)

H5

10

12

13

29

10

14

13

11

13

24

11-14

1

E1b1b

99.7%

H14

10

13

11

29

11

14

16

11

13

25

11-14

2

R1a

99.9%

H18

10

13

11

29

12

15

14

13

13

24

11-15

1

R1b

100%

H21

10

13

12

29

12

15

14

13

13

24

11-15

4

R1b

100%

H23

10

13

12

30

10

14

13

11

13

24

16-17

8

E1b1b

100%

H24

10

13

12

30

10

15

16

11

14

24

12-13

5

I2a

89.4%

H25

10

13

12

30

11

14

16

11

13

24

11-15

1

R1a

88.3%

H26

10

13

12

30

12

15

14

13

13

25

11-15

1

R1b

100%

H37

10

14

12

31

10

14

14

11

12

24

11-13

1

J1[BES1] 

95.8%

H38

10

14

12

32

10

14

13

11

13

24

16-17

3

E1b1b

100%

H40

10

14

13

31

10

14

13

11

13

24

10-14

1

E1b1b

96.1%

H42

10

14

13

32

10

14

13

11

13

24

16-21

4

E1b1b

100%

H45

11

13

10

30

11

14

16

11

13

24

11-15

1

R1a

99.9%

H49

11

13

12

30

12

15

14

13

12

24

11-14

1

R1b

100%

H50

11

13

12

30

12

15

14

13

13

25

11-15

2

R1b

100%

H53

11

13

13

29

12

15

14

13

13

23

11-14

1

R1b

100%

H54

11

13

13

30

12

14

14

13

12

24

11-13

1

R1b

100%

H60

12

14

12

30

12

15

14

13

13

23

11-14

1

R1b

100%

 

 

 

We predicted Y-chromosome haplogroups from our Y-STR data by the use the Y-Haplogroup Predictor Program (Athey, 2006).  The Bayesian probability was greater than 90% in all of the samples.  Table 3 lists each haplotype for the Haban samples and the corresponding predicted Y-haplogroup.

 

 

 

Table 3

Distribution of Y-Haplogroups in the

Slovak Haban Population (n=39).

 Y-Haplogroup

Number

Percent

E1b1b

17

43.59

I2a

5

12.82

J1

1

2.56

R1a

4

10.25

R1b

12

30.77

Total

39

100

 

 

 

We found only five Y-haplogroups from the core 21 Y-haplogroups in the studied population.  Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly E3b) was found in 17 individuals and represented 43.6% of the all samples.  Previous genetic studies of the Slovak population showed that Haplogroup E1b1b was also found as the second most frequent haplogroup (21%) in the Slovak Romani population (Petrejčíková et al., 2009a), but in the Slovak  population as a whole, its frequency was only 7.2% (Petrejčíková et al., 2009b).  On the European continent it has the highest concentration in Romania (21.4%), Bulgaria (20.7%) (Cruciani et al., 2004), Albania (45.6%) (Pericic et al., 2005) and Greece (22.7%) (DiGiacomo et al., 2003).

 

Haplogroup R1b was present in the Slovak Haban population at a level of 30.8% (12 individuals).  According to Wiik (2007), in Central Europe Haplogroup R1b forms a west-to-east gradient, with the highest percentages in westernmost Germany.  Haplogroup R1b was the second most prevalent haplogroup in the Czech population (28%) (Luca et al., 2007) and was found as the third most frequent in the Slovak population as a whole (13.2%) (Petrejčíková et al., 2009b).  A high frequency of Haplogroup R1b was also found in the Swiss (50%) and Tyrol population (59.4%) (Wiik, 2007).

 

The remaining haplogroups, I2a, R1a, and J1 were observed in smaller numbers of participants (I2a-12.8%; R1a-10.2% and J1- 2.6%).  In the Slovak population as a whole, Haplogroups R1a and I2a were the most common Y-haplogroups with a frequency of 38% and 18.4% (Petrejčíková et al., 2009b).

 

According to the obtained results of Y-chromosome variation, the genetic structure of Haban population was influenced by the populations from areas through which they migrated, and shows a high degree of genetic relatedness with the population living in South Moravia, where the Hutterian Brethren were first established.  On the other hand, results demonstrate genetic differentiation between the Haban population and the Slovak majority population.  The Haban population lives as a collection of genetically isolated founder populations.  This theory was confirmed by Weisensee and Siváková (2003).  According to this study the Habans have remained isolated from the surrounding populations, and genetic drift has played an important part in the history of this population.  Recently presented data from population structural studies and surname analysis in the three Haban villages also showed that all structural changes occurred over time within the Hutterite population (Siváková et al., 2000).

 

The data we have obtained may be useful for future population studies and for the comparison of the Slovak Haban population with Hutterite ethnic groups living in the USA and Canada.

 

Quality Control

 

The laboratory has previously participated in the Y-STR haplotype reference database (see Web Resources) quality assurance exercise in 2008, where five quality control samples were typed correctly with the Power-Plex Y System.

 

Acknowledgments

 

This publication was a realization of the project called ”Excellence Centre of Animal and Human Ecology,” supported by of The Research and Development Operational Program, funded by the European Fund of Regional Development (EFRD).  We are grateful to all the donors for providing the samples and to all people who contributed to their collection. 

 

Web Resources

 

Haplogroup Predictor Program

http://www.hprg.com/hapest5/

 

The Hutterian Brethren web site

http://www.hutterites.org

 

YHRD Y-STR haplotype reference database

http://www.yhrd.org

 

Arlequin Software for Population Genetics

http://cmpg.unibe.ch/software/arlequin3/

 

 

References

 

Athey TW (2006)  Haplogroup prediction from Y-STR values using a Bayesian-Allele-Frequency Approach.  J Genet Geneal, 2:34-39.

 

Bär W, Brinkmann B, Budowle B, Carracedo A, Gill P, Lincoln P, Mayr W, Olaisen B (1997)  DNA recommendations - Further report of the DNA commission of the ISFH regarding the use of short tandem repeat systems.  Int J Legal Med, 110:175-176.

 

Berger B, Lindinger A, Niederstatter H, Grubwieser P, Parson W (2005)  Y-STR typing of an Austrian population sample using a 17-loci multiplex PCR assay. Int J Legal Med, 119:241-246.

 

Cruciani, F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P et al. (19 co-authors) (2004)  Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa.  Am J Hum Genet, 74:1014–1022.

 

DiGiacomo F, Luca F, Anagnou N, Ciavarella G, Corbo RM, Cresta M, Cucci F, DiStasi L, Agostiano V, Giparaki M, Loutradis A, Mammi C, Michalodimitrakis EN, Papola F, Pedicini G, Plata E, Terrenato L, Tofanelli S, Malaspina P, Novelletto A (2003)  Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects.  Mol Phylogenetic Evol, 28: 387-395.

 

Excoffier LG, Laval S, Schneider S (2006) Arlequin ver. 3.1: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis.  Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online, 1: 47-50.  See Web Resources for download of software.

 

Haas C, Wangensteen T, Giezendanner N, Kratzer A, Bar W (2006)  Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a population sample from Switzerland (Zurich area). Forensic Sci Int, 158:213-218.

 

Hostetler JA (1997)  Hutterite Society.  The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.

 

Hutterites (2009)  Hutterites Brethern web site.  See Web Resrources.

 

Kalesný F (1981) Habans in Slovakia. Tatran Press, Bratislava (in Slovak).

 

Luca F, DiGiacomo F, Benincasa T, Popa LO, Banyko J, Kracmarova A, Malaspina P, Novelletto A, Brdicka R (2007)  Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech republic.  Am J Phys Anthropol, 132:132-139.

 

Pericic M, Lauc LB, Klaric IM, Rootsi S, Janicijevic B, Rudan I, Terzic R, Colak I, Kvesic A, Popovic D, Sijacki A, Behluli I, Thorthevic D, Efremovska L, Bajec ED, Stefanovic BD, Villems R, and Rudan P (2005)  High resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe (SEE) traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations.  Mol Biol Evol, 22:1964–1975.

 

Petrejčíková E, Soták M, Bernasovská J, Bernasovský I, Sovičová A, Boroňová I, Bôžiková A, Gabriková D, Švíčková P, Mačeková S (2009a) Y-Haplogroup frequencies in the Slovak Romany population. Anthropological Science, 117:89-94.

 

Petrejčíková E, Soták M, Bernasovská J, Bernasovský I, Sovičová A, Boroňová I, Bôžiková A, Gabriková D, Švíčková P, Mačeková S (2009b)  The genetic structure of the Slovak population revealed by Y-chromosome polymorphisms. Anthropological Science, DOI: 10.1537/ase090203

 

Rebala K, Mikulich AI, Tsybovsky IS, Sivakova D, Dzupinkova Z, Szczerkowska Dobosz A, Szczerkowska Z (2007)  Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin. J Hum Genet, 52:406-414.

 

Siváková D, Scheffrahn W, Nechvátalová Z (2000)  Ethnohistory and genetics of the Habans, a Slovak Hutterite isolate. In: Susane Ch, Bodzsár EB, eds.: Human Population Genetics in Europe.  Biennal Books of EAA, 1:15-27.

 

Weisensse KE, Siváková D (2003)  A Comparison of Slovakian Haban Populations Using Finger Ridge-Count Data.  Stud Tribes Tribals, 1:73-76.

 

Wiik K (2008)  Where did European men come from? J Genet Geneal 4:35-85.

 

YHRD (2009)  Y chromosome haplotype reference database.  Described in Willuweit S, Roewer L (2007) Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): Update.  Foren Sci Int: Genetics, 1, 83-87.  See YHRD database URL in Web Resources.

 


 [BES1] I would be surprised if this were a J1 haplotype, with those 385 values.  This study would have been much improved by a few SNP tests.